synthesizing the three below comments into one comment
When I think of a past global health program that has affected my field the first one that comes to mind is Vaccinations. I work in a school district and that is one of the main things that I have to keep track of for my 2500 students for my four schools with my nurse. I do believe vaccinations help keep one safe and healthy, if we didn’t have vaccinations we would still have people dying from disease. Let’s take Polio for example, Polio has almost been eradicated. In 1988 the World Health Assembly set out to put an end to Polio and the original target date was set for the year 2000, but things didn’t go as planned and dates had to change some and dates ended up getting pushed back almost 14 years. They have found 2 of the 3 serotypes of the Polio Virus easier to get rid of but the one that circulate in three countries (Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan) with periodic spread to other countries including Chad, Somalia and recently Syria is harder to get rid of, but even with all of this 99.9% drop in the number of polio cases since the start of the eradication program and in 2013 only 400 cases were reported (Greenwood, 2014).
According to NCBI they say, the polio eradication program has been costly, both financially and with the use of human resources. As of right now the campaign costs about $1 billion a year, provided largely by international donors and foundations, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rotary Club which have both made major contributions to the campaign (Greenwood, 2014).
Greenwood, B. (2014, June 19). The contribution of vaccination to global health: Past, present and future. Retrieved December 17, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024226/
A successful global health program requires a well-developed plan with the involvement of political leaders across the globe and significant amount of funds that are readily available over a long period of time (Levine, 2007). A successful program between countries requires a mutual respect and benefit, trust, good communication, and clear partner roles (John, Ayodo, & Musoke, 2016). Previous successful programs that improve global health include eradicating smallpox, preventing HIV and Sexually transmitted infections, controlling tuberculosis, and reducing/eliminating Polio, just to name a few (Center for Global Development, n.d.). The success of these and other interventions has impacted global health for the better. In the 1950s the average life expectancy was 40 years old in developing nations. Today the life expectancy in these places have risen to 65 years old (Center for Global Development, n.d.).
These successful global health programs positively affect the laboratory field because the lab is the place where the clinical data for these programs comes from. Testing in the labs provide surveillance, epidemiological data on frequencies and trends, health outcomes, and research data. Data can be generated through routine diagnostics, research diagnostics, either on-site or in a clinical setting (Van Der Pol, 2013). Laboratory testing is a critical part of a global health program for tracking the progress made through the global interventions.
Center for Global Development. (n.d.) What’s Worked? Accounting for Success in Global Health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/rpc/meetings/First_chapter_and_overview.pdf
John, C. C., Ayodo, G., & Musoke, P. (2016). Successful Global Health Research Partnerships: What Makes Them Work?. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 94(1), 5-7. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710444/
Levine, R. (2007) The Keys to Successful Global Health Policy. John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved from https://www.jhsph.edu/news/stories/2007/levine-amc.html
Van Der Pol, B. (2013). Laboratory support of global health research. Journal of general internal medicine, 28 Suppl 3(Suppl 3), S654-9.
In an article written for the National Public Radio, a non-profit news media organization, Camila Domonoske discusses one of the deadliest global health emergency issues in recent History- Haiti’s 2010 Cholera outbreak (Domonoske, 2016). Other than detailing the effects of the mentioned outbreak in the 6 years before it was written, in essence, Domonoske writes the article to document an admission on the part of the United Nations (The UN), as to its role in causing the outbreak of the virus (Domonoske, 2016). In which case, the UN’s admission, made on its behalf by Farhan Haq-its spokesperson at the time, had been inspired by various expert reports pointing to the effect that, the source of the disease had been a U.N. peacekeeping camp (Domonoske, 2016). Cholera, a water borne disease that causes severe dehydration, most resulting from repeated bouts of diarrhea, could be fatal if left uncontained, and in Haiti’s case, it had killed on “at least 10,000 people and sickened hundreds of thousands” of others, from the time of its outbreak in 2010, to the time of publication of Domonoske’s article, in 2011 (Domonoske, 2016).
Based on this example, the importance of global health in the modern day context can be seen. For example, one of the articles that Domonoske references in her work, highlights the interrelationship of the global human population as one health community by alluding to the fact that, the Haitian population was always bound to suffer very greatly devastating effects resulting from the cholera outbreak, because it did not have any immunity to the infection to start with in the first place (Domonoske, 2016). As such, the article highlights the need for the coordination of global efforts as expressed in the fight against various viral and bacterial infections. In this relation, countries around the world, could opt to adopt the same health regulations and health control standards, relative to the movement of human traffic from foreign lands into areas within their borders. At this point, one should note that, the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak was reportedly transmitted into the country by UN peacekeepers that had first contracted it in India, while in the line of duty.
Domonoske, C. (2016). U.N. Admits Role In Haiti Cholera Outbreak That Has Killed Thousands. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/18/490468640/u-n-admits-role-in-haiti-cholera-outbreak-that-has-killed-thousands