Which of the following describe your present conceptionof death?
Which of the following describe your present conceptionof death?
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Models of GrievingThe death of a loved one is a significant event that everyone experiences. An individual’s social environment, including societal and familial cultural factors, may influence how an individual approaches death or grieves the loss of someone else who dies. You can anticipate addressing grief in your social work practice and, therefore, should develop an understanding of the grieving process.
Two models of grieving?the Kubler-Ross and Westburg models?identify stages through which an individual progresses in response to the death of a loved one. Understanding the various ways individuals cope with grief helps you to anticipate their responses and to assist them in managing their grief. Select one model of grieving?the Kubler-Ross or Westburg model?to address in this assignment.
Addressing the needs of grieving family members can diminish your personal emotional, mental, and physical resources. In addition to developing strategies to assist grieving individuals in crisis, you must develop strategies that support self-care.In this Assignment, you apply a grieving model to work with families in a hospice environment and suggest strategies for self-care.
Submit by SATURDAY 8PM NEW YORK TIME a 2- to 4-page paper in which you:Explain how you, as a social worker, might apply the grieving model you selected to your work with families in a hospice environment.Identify components of the grieving model that you think might be difficult to apply to your social work practice. Explain why you anticipate these challenges.Identify strategies you might use for your own self care as a social worker dealing with grief counseling. Explain why these strategies might be effective.
ReferencesZastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Support your Assignment with specific references to the resources. Be sure to provide full APA citations for your references.
grandchildren and great-grandchildren with gifts,loans, and babysitting.Because older people are living longer, four andeven five generations of families are becoming morecommon. Papalia et al. (2009, p. 613) note:Grandparents and great-grandparents are importantto their families. They are sources of wisdom,companions in play, links to the past, and symbolsof the continuity of family life. They are engagedin the ultimate generative function: expressing thehuman longing to transcend mortality by investingthemselves in the future generations.Guidelines for PositivePsychological Preparationfor Later Adulthood:The Strengths PerspectiveGrowing old is a lifelong process. Becoming 65 doesnot destroy the continuity of what a person has been,is now, and will be. Recognizing this should lessen thefear of growing old. For those who are financiallysecure and in good health and who have preparedthoughtfully, later adulthood can be a period ofat least reasonable pleasure and comfort, if notluxury.Some may be able to start small home businesses,based on their hobbies, or become involved in meaningfulactivities with churches and other organizations.Others may relax while fishing or traveling around thecountry. Still others may continue to pursue such interestsas gardening, woodworking, reading, needlework,painting, weaving, and photography. Many older peoplehave contributed as much (or more) to society asthey did in their earlier years. One role model in thisarea is Jimmy Carter; see Highlight 15.1.Our lives depend largely on our goals and ourefforts to achieve those goals. How we live beforeretiring will largely determine whether later adulthoodwill be a nightmare or will be gratifying andfulfilling. The importance of being physically andmentally active throughout life was discussed inChapter 14. Here are some factors that are closelyrelated to satisfaction in later adulthood:1. Close personal relationships. Having close relationshipswith others is important throughout life.Older people who have close friends are more satisfiedwith life. Practically everyone needs a personto whom one can confide one?s private thoughts orfeelings. Older people who have confidants arebetter able to handle the trials and tribulations ofHIGHLIGHT 15.1Jimmy Carter: Stumbled as President, Excelled in Later AdulthoodJimmy Carter (James Earl Carter Jr.) was born October 1,1924, in the small rural community of Plains, Georgia. Cartergraduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis in 1946.After seven years as a naval officer, he returned to Plains,where he ran a peanut-producing business. In 1962, he enteredstate politics. Eight years later, he was elected governor ofGeorgia. In 1976, he was elected president of the United States.Although he had some noteworthy accomplishments as president,there were serious setbacks economically and in foreignaffairs. Inflation, interest rates, and unemployment rates wereat near-record highs. During Carter?s four-year administration,the economy went into a recession. In 1979, more than 50members of the U.S. Embassy staff in Iran were taken as hostagesby militants. Despite 14 months of trying, the Carter administrationwas unable to secure release of the hostages. Aftera devastating defeat for reelection in 1980, Carter retired frompolitical life?and left being very unpopular.But the best was yet to come. He did not throw in thetowel. Today he is a professor at Emory University inGeorgia and a leading advocate for Habitat for Humanity,which helps build houses for low-income families. He establishedthe Carter Center, which sponsors internationalprograms in human rights, preventive health care, education,agricultural techniques, and conflict resolution.Carter and the Carter Center have secured the release ofhundreds of political prisoners. He has become an elderstatesman, a roving peacemaker, and a guardian of freedom.He oversaw the Nicaraguan elections that oustedthe dictatorship of the Sandinistas. He brokered a ceasefirebetween the Serbs and the Bosnian Muslims. He haspressured China to release political prisoners. He was thefirst former U.S. president to visit Communist Cuba. Hehas helped set up fair elections in China, Mozambique,Nigeria, Indonesia, and several other developing countries.In addition, he has written 14 books. In 2002, at age 78, hewas awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Clearly, Carter?s accomplishmentsin later adulthood surpass his accomplishmentsin his earlier years.660 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentCopyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.aging. Through sharing their deepest concerns,people are able to ventilate their feelings and totalk about their problems and possibly arrive atsome strategies for handling them. Those who aremarried are more likely than the widowed to haveconfidants, and the widowed are more likely tohave confidants than those who have never married.For those who are married, the spouse is aptto be the confidant, especially for men.2. Finances. Health and income are two factorsclosely related to life satisfaction in later adulthood.When people feel good and have money,they can be more active. Those who are active?who go out to eat, go to meetings or museums, goto church, go on picnics, or travel?are happierthan those who mostly stay at home. Savingmoney for later years is important, and so islearning to manage or budget money wisely.3. Interests and hobbies. Psychologically, peoplewho are traumatized most by retirement are thosewhose self-image and life interests center on theirwork. People who have meaningful hobbies andinterests look forward to retirement in order tohave sufficient time for these activities.4. Self-identity. People who are comfortable and realisticabout who they are and what they wantfrom life are better prepared to deal with stressesand crises that arise.5. Looking toward the future. A person who dwellson the past or rests on past achievements is apt tofind the older years depressing. On the otherhand, a person who looks to the future generallyhas interests that are alive and growing and istherefore able to find new challenges and new satisfactionin later years. Looking toward the futureinvolves planning for retirement, including decidingwhere one would like to live, in what type ofhousing and community, and what one looks forwardto doing with his or her free time.6. Coping with crises. If a person learns to cope effectivelywith crises in younger years, these copingskills will remain useful when a person isolder. Effective coping is learning to approachproblems realistically and constructively.Grief Management and DeathEducationIn the remainder of this chapter, we will discuss reactionsto death in our society, including social workroles in grief management and guidelines for relatingto a dying person and to survivors.Death in Our Society: The Impactof Social ForcesPeople in primitive societies handle death better thanwe do. They are more apt to view death as a naturaloccurrence, partly because they have shorter life expectancies.They also frequently see friends and relativesdie. Because they view death as a naturaloccurrence, they are better prepared to handle thedeath of loved ones. Spotlight 15.3 illustrates thecultural-historical context of death and bereavement.In our society, we tend to shy away fromthinking about death. The terminally ill generallydie in institutions (hospitals and nursing homes),away from their homes. Therefore, we are seldomexposed to people dying. Many people in our societyseek to avoid thinking about death. They avoid goingto funerals and avoid conversations about death.Many people live as if they believe they will liveindefinitely.We need to become comfortable with the idea ofour own eventual death. If we do that, we will bebetter prepared for the deaths of close friends andrelatives. We will also then be better prepared torelate to the terminally ill and to help survivorswho have experienced the death of a close friend orrelative.Funerals are needed for survivors. Funerals helpinitiate the grieving process so that people can workthrough their grief. (Delaying the grieving processmay intensify the eventual grief.) For some, funeralsalso serve the function of demonstrating that the personis dead. If survivors do not actually see the deadbody, some may mystically believe that the person isstill alive. For example, John F. Kennedy was assassinatedin 1963 and had a closed-casket funeral.Because the body was not shown, rumors aboundedfor many years that he was still alive.The sudden death of a young person is more difficultto cope with, for three reasons. First, we donot have time to prepare for the death. Second, wefeel the loss as more severe because we feel the personis missing out on many of the good things in life.Third, we do not have the opportunity to obtain asense of closure in the relationship; we may feel wedid not have the opportunity to tell the person howwe felt about him or her, or we did not get the opportunityto resolve interpersonal conflicts. (Becausethe grieving process is intensified when closure doesPsychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 661Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.not occur, it is advisable to actively work towardclosure in our relationships with others.)Children should not be sheltered from death.They should be taken to funerals of relatives andfriends and their questions answered honestly. It isa mistake to say, ?Grandmother has gone on a tripand won?t be back.? The child will wonder if othersignificant people in his or her life will also go on atrip and not come back; or the child may be puzzledabout why grandmother won?t return from the trip.It is much better to explain to children that death isa natural process. It is desirable to state that death isunlikely to occur until a person is quite old, but thatthere are exceptions?such as an automobile accident.Parents who take their children to funerals almostalways find the children handle the funeralbetter than they expected. Funerals help childrenlearn that death is a natural process.It is generally a mistake for survivors to seek toappear strong and emotionally calm following thedeath of a close friend or relative. Usually such peoplewant to avoid dealing with their loss, and there isa danger that when they do start grieving they willexperience more intense grief?partly because theywill feel guilty about denying that they are hurting,and partly because they will feel guilty because theyde-emphasized (by hiding their pain and feelings) theimportance of the person who died.Many health professionals (such as medical doctors)find death difficult to handle. Health professionalsare committed to healing. When someone isfound to have a terminal illness, health professionalsare apt to experience a sense of failure. In somecases, they experience guilt because they cannot domore, or because they might have made mistakesthat contributed to a terminal illness. Therefore, donot be too surprised if you find that some healthprofessionals do not know what to say or do whenconfronted by terminal illness.The Grieving ProcessNearly all of us are currently grieving about someloss that we have had. It might be the end of a romanticrelationship, or moving away from friendsand parents, or the death of a pet, or failing to geta grade we wanted, or the death of someone.It is a mistake to believe that grieving over a lossshould end in a set amount of time. The normalgrieving process is often the life span of the griever.When we first become aware of a loss of great importanceto us, we are apt to grieve intensively?bycrying or by being depressed. Gradually, we willhave hours, then days, then weeks, then monthswhen we will not think about the loss and will notgrieve. However, there will always be something thatreminds us of the loss (such as anniversaries), and weSPOTLIGHT ON DIVERSITY 15.3The Cultural-Historical Context of Death and BereavementCultural customs concerning the disposal and remembranceof the dead, the transfer of possessions, and even expressionsof grief vary greatly from culture to culture. Often, religiousor legal prescriptions about these topics reflect a society?sview of what death is and what happens afterward.In ancient Greece, bodies of heroes were publicly burnedas a symbol of honor. Public cremation is still practiced byHindus in India and Nepal. In contrast, cremation is prohibitedunder Orthodox Jewish law, as it is believed that the deadwill rise again for a ?last judgment? and the chance for eternallife. To this day, some Polynesians in the Tahitian Islandsbury their parents in the front yard of their parents? home as away of remembering them.In ancient Romania, warriors went laughing to theirgraves, expecting to meet Zalmoxis, their supreme god.In Mayan society, which prospered several centuries agoin Mexico and Central America, death was seen as a gradualtransition. At first a body was given only a provisional burial.Survivors continued to perform mourning rites until the bodydecayed to the point where it was thought the soul had left itand transcended into the spiritual realm.In Japan, religious rituals expect survivors to maintaincontact with the deceased. Families keep an altar in theirhomes that is dedicated to their ancestors; they offer themcigars and food and talk to the altar as if they were talkingto their deceased loved ones. In contrast, the Hopi (NativeAmerican tribe) fear the spirits of the deceased and try to forget,as quickly as possible, those who have died.Some modern cultural customs have evolved from ancientones. The current practice of embalming, for example,evolved from the mummification practice in ancient Egyptand China about 3,000 years ago that was designed to preservea body so that the soul could eventually return to it.Today, Muslims in Bali are encouraged to suppress sadness,and instead to laugh and be joyful at burials. In contrast,Muslims in Egypt are encouraged to express their grief withdisplays of deep sorrow.662 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentCopyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.will again grieve. The intense grieving periods will,however, gradually become shorter, occur less frequently,and decrease in intensity.Two models of the grieving process will be presentedhere: the K?bler-Ross (1969) model and theWestberg (1962) model. These models help us to understandthe grief we feel from any loss.The K?bler-Ross ModelThis model posits five stages of grief:1. Stage One: Denial. During this stage, we tell ourselves,?No, this can?t be. There must be a mistake.This just isn?t happening.? Denial is oftenfunctional because it helps cushion the impact ofthe loss.2. Stage Two: Rage and Anger. During this stage,we tell ourselves, ?Why me? This just isn?t fair!?For example, terminally ill patients resent thatthey will soon die while other people will remainhealthy and alive. During this stage, God is sometimesa target of the anger. The terminally ill, forexample, blame God as unfairly imposing a deathsentence.3. Stage Three: Bargaining. During this stage, peoplewith losses attempt to strike bargains to regainall or part of the loss. For example, theterminally ill may bargain with God for moretime. They promise to do something worthwhileor to be good in exchange for another month oryear of life. K?bler-Ross indicates that even agnosticsand atheists sometimes attempt to bargainwith God during this stage.4. Stage Four: Depression. During this stage, thosehaving losses tell themselves, ?The loss is true,and it?s really sad. This is awful. How can I goon with life??5. Stage Five: Acceptance. During this stage, theperson fully acknowledges the loss. Survivorsaccept the loss and begin working on alternativesto cope with the loss and to minimize its impact.The Westberg ModelThis model is represented graphically in Figure 15.1.? Shock and Denial. According to the Westbergmodel, many people, when informed of a tragicloss, are so numb, and in a state of such shock,that they are practically devoid of feelings. Itcould well be that when emotional pain is unusuallyintense, a person?s response system experiences?overload? and temporarily ?shuts down.?The person feels hardly anything and acts as ifnothing has happened. Such denial is a way ofavoiding the impact of a tragic loss.? Emotions Erupt. As the realization of the loss becomesevident, the person expresses the pain bycrying, screaming, or sighing.? Anger. At some point, a person usually experiencesanger. The anger may be directed at God for causingthe loss. The anger may be partly due to theunfairness of the loss. If the loss involves the deathof a loved one, there is often anger at the dead personfor what is termed ?desertion.?? Illness. Because grief produces stress, stress-relatedillnesses are apt to develop, such as colds, flu,ulcers, tension headaches, diarrhea, rashes, andinsomnia.? Panic. Because the grieving person realizes he orshe does not feel like the ?old self,? the personmay panic and worry about going insane. Nightmares,unwanted emotions that appear uncontrollable,physical reactions, and difficulties inconcentrating on day-to-day responsibilities allcontribute to the panic.? Guilt. The grieving person may blame himselfor herself for having done something thatLoss/Hurt Healed/NewStrengthsShock anddenialEmotions eruptAffirmingrealityAngerHopeIllnessReentry difficultiesPanic Depression and lonelinessGuiltFIGURE 15.1 Westberg Model of the Grieving Process? Cengage Learning 2013Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 663Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.contributed to the loss, or feel guilty for not doingsomething that might have prevented the loss.? Depression and Loneliness. At times, the grievingperson is apt to feel very sad about the loss andalso to have feelings of isolation and loneliness.The grieving person may withdraw from others,who are viewed as not being supportive orunderstanding.? Reentry Difficulties. When the grieving personmakes efforts to put his or her life back together,reentry problems are apt to arise. The person mayresist letting go of attachments to the past, andloyalties to memories may hamper the pursuit ofnew interests and activities.? Hope. Gradually, hopes of putting one?s life backtogether return and begin to grow.? Affirming Reality. The grieving person puts his orher life back together again, and the old feelingof having control of one?s life returns. Thereconstructed life is not the same as the old, andmemories of the loss remain. However, the reconstructedlife is satisfactory. The grieving personresolves that life will go on.Evaluation of Models of the Grieving ProcessK?bler-Ross and Westberg note that some peoplecontinue grieving and never do reach the final stage(the acceptance stage in the K?bler-Ross model, orthe affirming reality stage in the Westberg model).K?bler-Ross and Westberg also caution that it is amistake to rigidly believe everyone will progressthrough these stages as diagrammed. There is oftenconsiderable movement back and forth among thestages. For example, in the K?bler-Ross model, aperson may go from denial and depression to angerand rage, then back to denial, then to bargaining,then again to depression, back to anger and rage,and so on.How to Cope with GriefThe following suggestions are given to help thosewho are grieving:? Crying is an acceptable and valuable expression ofgrief. Cry when you feel the need. Crying releasesthe tension that is part of grieving.? Talking about your loss and about your plans isvery constructive. Sharing your grief with friends,family, the clergy, a hospice volunteer, or a professionalcounselor is advisable. You may seek tobecome involved with a group of others havingsimilar experiences. Talking about your grief easesloneliness and allows you to ventilate your feelings.Talking with close friends gives you a senseof security and brings you closer to others youlove. Talking with others who have similar losseshelps put your problems into perspective. You willsee you are not the only one with problems, andyou will feel good about yourself when you assistothers in handling their losses.? Death often causes us to examine and questionour faith or philosophy of life. Do not becomeconcerned if you begin questioning your beliefs.Talk about them. For many, a religious faith provideshelp in accepting the loss.? Writing out a rational self-analysis on your griefwill help you to identify irrational thinking that iscontributing to your grief (see Chapter 8). Onceany irrational thinking is identified, you can relievemuch of your grief through rational challengesto your irrational thinking.? Try not to dwell on how unhappy you feel. Becomeinvolved and active in life around you. Donot waste your time and energy on self-pity.? Seek to accept the inevitability of death?yoursand that of others.? If the loss is the death of a loved one, holidays andthe anniversaries of your loved one?s birth anddeath can be stressful. Seek to spend these dayswith family and friends who will give yousupport.? You may feel that you have nothing to live forand may even think about suicide. Understandthat many people who encounter severe lossesfeel this way. Seek to find assurance in the factthat a sense of purpose and meaning will return.? Intense grief is very stressful. Stress is a factor thatleads to a variety of illnesses, such as headaches,colitis, ulcers, colds, and flu. If you become ill,seek a physician?s help, and tell him or her thatyour illness may be related to grief you areexperiencing.? Intense grief may also lead to sleeplessness, sexualdifficulties, loss of appetite, or overeating. If aloved one has died, do not be surprised if youdream the person is still alive. You may find youhave little energy and cannot concentrate. All ofthese reactions are normal. Do not worry that youare going crazy or losing your mind. Seek to takea positive view. Eat a balanced diet, get amplerest, and exercise moderately. Every person?s griefis individual?if you are experiencing unusual664 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentCopyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.physical reactions (such as nightmares), try not tobecome overly alarmed.? Medication should be taken sparingly and onlyunder the supervision of a physician. Avoid tryingto relieve your grief with alcohol or other drugs.Many drugs are addictive and may stop or delaythe necessary grieving process.? Recognize that guilt, real or imagined, is a normalpart of grief. Survivors often feel guilty aboutthings they said or did, or feel guilty about thingsthey think they should have said or done. If youare experiencing intense guilt, it is helpful to shareit with friends or with a professional counselor. Itmight also be helpful to write a rational selfanalysisof the guilt (see Chapter 8). Learn to forgiveyourself. All humans make mistakes.? You may find that friends and relatives appear tobe shunning you. If this is happening, they probablyare uncomfortable around you, as they do notknow what to say or do. Take the initiative andtalk with them about your loss. Inform themabout ways in which you would like them to besupportive.? If possible, put off making major decisions (changingjobs, moving) until you become more emotionallyrelaxed. When you?re highly emotional, you?remore apt to make undesirable decisions.Application of Grief Management Theoryto Client SituationsMost people are grieving about one or more losses?the end of a romantic relationship, the death of apet, or the death of a loved one. Social workersmay take on a variety of roles in the areas of griefmanagement and death education: They can be initiatorsof educational programs in schools,churches, and elsewhere for the general public.They can be counselors in a variety of settings (includinghospices, nursing homes, and hospitals) inwhich they work on a one-to-one basis with the terminallyill and with survivors. They can be groupfacilitators and lead grief management groups (includingbereavement groups for survivors) in settingssuch as hospitals, hospices, mental health clinics,and schools. They may also serve as brokers inlinking individuals who are grieving, or who haveunrealistic views about death and dying, with appropriatecommunity resources.In order for social workers to be effective in theseroles, they need to become comfortable with the ideaof their own eventual deaths. They also need to developskills for relating to the terminally ill and tosurvivors. The following sections present someguidelines in these areas. The material is useful notonly for social workers but also for anyone who hascontact with a dying person or with survivors.How to Relate to a Dying PersonFirst, you need to accept the idea of your owneventual death and view death as a normal process.If you cannot accept your own death, you will probablybe uncomfortable talking to someone who isterminally ill and will not be able to discuss the concernsthat the dying person has in an understandingand positive way. The questions in Highlight 15.2will help you assess your attitudes toward the realityof death.Second, tell the dying person that you are willingto talk about any concerns that he or she has. LetWhen a person?s spouse dies, he or she is apt to feel sad, lonely,and isolated. Gradually, the grieving person reaches out to others.Photodisc/Getty ImagesPsychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 665Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.HIGHLIGHT 15.2Questions About Grief, Death, and DyingArriving at answers to these questions is one way to worktoward becoming more comfortable with your own eventualdeath.1. Which of the following describe your present conceptionof death?a. Cessation of all mental and physical activityb. Death as sleepc. Heaven-and-hell conceptd. A pleasant afterlifee. Death as being mysterious and unknownf. The end of all life for youg. A transition to a new beginningh. A joining of the spirit with an unknown cosmicforcei. Termination of this physical life with survival of thespiritj. Something other than what is on this list2. Which of the following aspects of your own death doyou find distasteful?a. What might happen to your body after deathb. What might happen to you if there is a life afterdeathc. What might happen to your dependentsd. The grief that it would cause to your friends andrelativese. The pain you may experience as you dief. The deterioration of your body before you dieg. All your plans and projects coming to an endh. Something other than what is on this list3. If you could choose, what age would you like to bewhen you die?4. When you think of your own eventual death, how doyou feel?a. Depressedb. Fearfulc. Discouragedd. Purposelesse. Angryf. Pleasure in being aliveg. Resolved as you realize death is a natural processof livingh. Other (specify)5. For what, or for whom, would you be willing tosacrifice your life?a. An idea or moral principleb. A loved onec. In combatd. An emergency where another life could be savede. Not for any reason6. If you could choose, how would you prefer to die?a. A sudden, violent deathb. A sudden but nonviolent deathc. A quiet and dignified deathd. Death in the line of dutye. Suicidef. Homicide victimg. Death after you have achieved your life goalsh. Other (specify)7. If it were possible, would you want to know the exactdate on which you would die?8. Would you want to know if you had a terminal illness?9. If you had six more months to live, how would youwant to spend the time?a. Satisfying hedonistic desires such as sexb. Withdrawingc. Contemplating or prayingd. Seeking to prepare loved ones for your deathe. Completing projects and tying up loose endsf. Considering suicideg. Other (specify)10. Have you seriously contemplated suicide? What areyour moral views of suicide? Are there circumstancesunder which you would take your life?11. If you had a serious illness and the quality of your lifehad substantially deteriorated, what measures do youbelieve should be taken to keep you alive?a. All possible heroic medical efforts should be takenb. Medical efforts should be discontinued when there ispractically no hope of returning to a life with qualityc. Other (specify)12. If you are married, would you prefer to outlive yourspouse? Why?13. How important do you believe funerals and griefrituals are for survivors?14. If it were up to you, how would you like to have yourbody disposed of after you die?a. Cremationb. Burialc. Donation of your body to a medical school or toscienced. Other (specify)15. What kind of funeral would you prefer?a. A church serviceb. As large as possiblec. Small with only close friends and relatives presentd. A lavish funerale. A simple funeralf. Whatever your survivors wantg. Other (specify)16. Have you made a will? Why or why not?17. Were you able to arrive at answers to most of thesequestions? Were you uncomfortable in answering thesequestions? If you were uncomfortable, what were youfeeling, and what made you uncomfortable? For thequestions you do not have answers to, how might youarrive at answers?666 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentCopyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.the person know that you are emotionally ready andsupportive, that you care, and that you are available.Remember, the person has a right not to talkabout concerns if he or she so chooses. Touching orhugging the dying person is also very helpful.Third, answer the dying person?s questions ashonestly as you can. If you do not know an answer,find someone who can provide the requested information.Evasion or ambiguity in response to a dyingperson?s questions only increases his or her concerns.If there is a chance for recovery, this should be mentioned.Even a small margin of hope can be a comfort.Do not, however, exaggerate the chances forrecovery.Fourth, a dying person should be allowed to acceptthe reality of the situation at his or her own pace. Relevantinformation should not be volunteered, norshould it be withheld. People who have terminal illnesseshave rights to have access to all the relevantinformation. A useful question that may assist a dyingperson is, ?Do you want to talk about it??Fifth, if people around the dying person are ableto accept the death, the dying person is helped toaccept the death. Therefore, it is therapeutic tohelp close family members and friends accept thedeath. Remember, they may have a number of concernsthat they want to discuss, and they may needhelp to do this.Sixth, if you have trouble with certain subjectsinvolving death, inform the dying person of yourlimitations. This takes the guesswork out of therelationship.Seventh, the religious or philosophical viewpointof the dying person should be respected. Your ownpersonal views should not be imposed.How to Relate to SurvivorsThese suggestions are similar to the suggestions onrelating to a dying person. It is very helpful to becomeaccepting of the idea of your own death. If youare comfortable about your own death, you will bebetter able to calmly listen to the concerns being expressedby survivors.It is helpful to initiate the first encounter with asurvivor by saying something like, ?I?m sorry,? andthen touching or hugging the person. Then conveythat if he or she wants to talk or needs help, you?reavailable. Take your lead from what the survivorexpresses. You should seek to convey that youcare, that you share his or her loss, and that you?reavailable if he or she wants to talk.It is helpful to use active listening with both survivorsand persons who are terminally ill. In usingactive listening, the receiver of a message feeds backonly what he or she feels was the intent of the sender?smessage. In using this approach, the receiverdoes not send a message of his or her own, such asasking a question, giving advice, expressing personalfeelings, or offering an opinion.It is frequently helpful to share with a survivorpleasant and positive memories you have about theperson who has died. This conveys that you sincerelycare about and miss the deceased person and alsothat the deceased person?s life had positive meaning.ETHICAL DILEMMAWhether to Insert a Feeding TubeNew technology has made it possible for patientswith irreversible brain damage to bekept alive for decades. A key component ofkeeping someone alive is the insertion of afeeding tube. Once a feeling tube has been inserted,it is extremely difficult to obtain acourt order to have it removed. Some patientshave been kept alive in a chronic vegetative state for 10 to 15years after a feeding tube has been inserted.Assume the following: Your mother has a tragic automobileaccident, and her brain is deprived of oxygen for 15 minutes.She is in a coma for 30 days, and medical tests indicate thatshe has suffered irreversible brain damage. It will take a miraclefor your mother to ever regain consciousness. Your mother hasnot signed a living will, a document in which the signer asks tobe allowed to die rather than be kept alive by artificial means ifdisabled and there is no reasonable expectation of recovery.The attending doctors ask you if you want to give permissionfor a feeding tube to be inserted. If a tube is not inserted, yourmother will starve to death; however, she probably will experiencelittle or no pain, as she is in a coma. If a tube is inserted,she will probably live in a vegetative state for many years.What do you do?This dilemma is obviously heartrending, but is includedhere to help prepare you for a decision you may somedayhave to make.EP 2.1.2Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 667Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.Relating your memories will often focus the survivor?sthoughts on pleasant and positive memoriesof his or her own.Continue to visit the survivors if they show interestin such visits. It is also helpful to express yourcaring and support through a card, a little gift, ora favorite casserole. If a survivor is unable to resumethe normal functions of living, or remains deeplydepressed, suggest seeking professional help. Joininga survivor self-help group is another possiblesuggestion.The religious or philosophical viewpoint of survivorsshould be respected. You should not seek toimpose your views on the survivors.How to Become Comfortable with the Ideaof Your Own Eventual Death: The StrengthsPerspectivePerhaps the main reason people are uncomfortableabout death is that in our culture we are socializedto avoid seeing death as a natural process. We wouldbe more comfortable with the idea of our own deathif we could talk about it more openly and activelyseek answers to our own questions and concerns.Comfort with the idea of our own death helps usbe more supportive in relating to and understandingthose who are dying. If you are uncomfortable aboutdeath, including your own eventual death, here aresome things you can do to become morecomfortable.Identify what your concerns are and then seekanswers to these concerns. Numerous excellentbooks provide information on a wide range of subjectsinvolving death and dying. Many colleges, universities,and organizations provide workshopsand courses on death and dying. If you have intensefears about death and dying, consider talking toauthorities in the field, such as professional counselors,or to clergy with experience and training ingrief counseling.Taboos against talking about death and dyingneed to be broken in our society. You may findthat tactfully initiating discussions about death anddying with friends and relatives will be helpful toyou, and to people close to you.It is probably accurate that we will never becomefully accepting of the idea of our own death, but wecan learn a lot more about the subject and obtainanswers to many of the questions and concerns wehave. In talking about death, it is advisable to avoidusing euphemisms such as ?passed on,? ?gone toheaven,? and ?taken by the Lord.? It is much betterto be accurate and say the person has died. Usingeuphemisms gives an unrealistic impression of deathand is part of an avoidance approach to facingdeath. Fortunately, an open communications approachabout death is emerging in our society.Additional ways to become more informed aboutdeath and dying are attending funerals; watchingquality films and TV programs that cover aspectsof dying; providing support to friends or relativeswho are terminally ill; being supportive to survivors;talking to people who do grief counseling to learnabout their approach; keeping a journal of yourthoughts and concerns related to death and dying;and planning the details of your own funeral. Somepersons move toward becoming more comfortablewith their own death by studying the research thathas been conducted on near-death experiences, asdescribed in Highlight 15.3.Mwalimu Imara (1975) views dying as having apotential for being the final stage of growth. Learningto accept death is similar to learning to acceptother losses?such as the breakup of a romantic relationshipor leaving a job we cherished. If we learnto accept and grow from the losses we encounter,such experiences will help us in facing the deaths ofloved ones and our own eventual death.Having a well-developed sense of identity (that is,who we are and what we want out of life) is an importantstep in learning to become comfortable withour own eventual death. If we have well-developedblueprints of what will give meaning and direction toour lives, we are emotionally better prepared to acceptthat we will eventually die.Ethical Question 15.5Are you comfortable with the factthat someday you will die? Mostpeople are not. If you are not, whatdo you need to work on to becomemore comfortable? EP 2.1.2668 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentCopyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.Chapter SummaryThe following summarizes this chapter?s content interms of the learning objectives presented at the beginningof the chapter.A. Describe the developmental tasks of lateradulthood.Older adults must make a number of developmentalpsychological adjustments, such as adjusting to retirementand lower income and to changing physicalstrength and health.B. Present theoretical concepts about developmentaltasks in late adulthood.Theoretical concepts about developmental tasks inlater adulthood include integrity versus despair,shifting from work-role preoccupation to selfdifferentiation;shifting from body preoccupation tobody transcendence; shifting from self-occupation toself-transcendence; conducting a life review; the importanceof self-esteem; the significance of having ahigh level of life satisfaction; the negative effects oflow status and ageism; the prevalence of depressionHIGHLIGHT 15.3Life After LifeRaymond Moody (1975) interviewed a number of people whohad near-death experiences. These people had been pronouncedclinically dead but then shortly afterward were revived.Moody provides the following composite summary oftypical experiences that have been reported. (It is important tobear in mind that the following narrative is not a representationof any one person?s experience; rather, it is a compositeof the common elements found in many accounts.)A man is dying and, as he reaches the point of greatestphysical stress, he hears himself pronounced dead by hisdoctor. He begins to hear an uncomfortable noise, a loudringing or buzzing, and at the same time feels himself movingvery rapidly through a long dark tunnel. After this, hesuddenly finds himself outside of his own physical body, butstill in the immediate physical environment, and he sees hisown body from a distance, as though he is a spectator. Hewatches the resuscitation attempt from his unusual vantagepoint and is in a state of emotional upheaval.After a while, he collects himself and becomes more accustomedto his odd condition. He notices that he still has a?body,? but one of a very different nature and with verydifferent powers from the physical body he has left behind.Soon other things begin to happen. Others come to meetand to help him. He glimpses the spirits of relatives andfriends who have already died, and a loving, warm spirit ofa kind he has never encountered before?being of light?appears before him. This being asks him a question, nonverbally,to make him evaluate his life and helps him along byshowing him a panoramic, instantaneous playback of themajor events of his life. At some point he finds himself approachingsome sort of barrier or border, apparently representingthe limit between earthly life and the next life. Yet,he finds that he must go back to the earth; that the time forhis death has not yet come. At this point he resists, for bynow he is taken up with his experiences in the afterlife anddoes not want to return. He is overwhelmed by his intensefeelings of joy, love, and peace. Despite his attitude, though,he somehow reunites with his body and lives.Later he tries to tell others, but he has trouble doing so.In the first place, he can find no human words adequate todescribe this unearthly episode. He also finds that othersscoff, so he stops telling other people. Still, the experienceaffects his life profoundly, especially his views about deathand its relationship to life.No one is sure why such experiences are reported. Variousexplanations have been suggested (Siegel, 1981). One is that itsuggests there may be a pleasant afterlife. This explanationgives comfort to those who dislike seeing death as an absoluteend. Another explanation, however, is that these near-deathexperiences are nothing more than hallucinations triggered bychemicals released by the brain or induced by lack of oxygento the brain. Scientists involved with near-death researchacknowledge that so far there is no conclusive evidence thatthese near-death experiences prove there is life after death.Nelson, Mattingly, and Schmitt (2007) suggest that somepeople may be biologically predisposed to near-death experiences.They interviewed 55 Europeans who said they had hadsuch experiences. The researchers found that these researchsubjects also had these experiences in the transition betweenwakefulness and sleep. The researchers theorized that such peoplemay have disturbances in the brain?s arousal system thatpermit an intrusion of REM sleep elements when they are notquite asleep, bringing on temporary visual hallucinations.SOURCE: Raymond A. Moody, Jr., 1975, Life After Life. New York:Bantam Books, pp. 21?23. Reprinted by permission of the copyrightowner, Mockingbird Books, St. Simon?s Island, GA.Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 669Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
UNIV B201 Career Management /Development Plan Instructions
The Development Plan is comprised of an industry outlook and SMART goals. The purpose of this assignment is to enable you to research your target industry, better understand the requirements and expectations of the field, and to develop strategies for achieving your professional goals.
I. Industry OutlookYou will write a two paragraph overview of your target position and industry. This information will include employment outlooks and projections, required education and licensure, and average salary ranges for entry level professionals. It is necessary to use external sources (see below) and cite this information. There should be two other resources used besides the BLS website.? Occupational Outlook Handbook (Dept of Labor) http://www.bls.gov/OCO/? Occupational Information Network/O*Net http://online.onetcenter.org/? Vault Career Insider [e-resource via Hagerty Library]
II. SMART GoalsYou will use the SMART goal format to address four categories (two required and two additional categories) from the list below.Required Categories:? Networking? Industry/Technical Skills Additional Categories:? Identifying a Mentor? Personal Growth? Social Integration within Company? Financial Planning? Community Integration? Cross Cultural Awareness? Leadership Skills? Advanced Education/Professional Licensure? Other (you can create a category more relevant to your career goals)
Specific-The goal should define specific results and provide concrete detailsMeasurable-When writing the goal, define how you can measure successAttainable-Goals should be challenging but realisticRelevant-State the results to be achievedTime-Bound-Establish a time limitExample of a SMART goal statement (please note the level of detail written):Category SMART Goal StatementNetworking Complete three informational interviews, during the fall of 2016, with mid to high level professionals working in economic development, public policy, or international economics working for the federal government or applicable agency within the Washington D.C. area to identify:– Viable career paths and entry level positions– Recommendations for advanced degrees and development of admission strategies, highlighting topics including:o Differentiators amongst programs (MS, MPA, MPP, MAIEF or PhD)o Application processo Creation of candidate profiles and interest statementso Recommended universities and colleges– Insight into the federal government?s job search process:o Navigating USAJOBSo Creation of federal resume– Overview of salary schedule (GS grades)
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